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Term Definition

The swallowing-vomiting activity of the gag reflex.

Gastroesophageal Reflux

contents of the stomach flow back into the esophagus due to a muscle problem

Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) – after age of 3

Refers to the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus or oropharynx; with or without vomiting. GER can be a daily, normal physiological occurrence in infants, children and adolescents. Most episodes of GER in healthy individuals last <3 minutes, occur in the postprandial period, and cause few or no troublesome symptoms. Regurgitation or spitting up is the most obviously visible symptom to caregivers and pediatricians, particularly in the very young child, occurring daily in about 50% of infants <3 months of age. Regurgitation resolves spontaneously in most healthy infants by 12-14 months of age3,4,5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) refers to the symptoms and complications that may develop secondary to persistent GER. Differentiating GER from GERD is critical for the clinician in order to avoid un- necessary diagnostic testing and exposure to medications.

Gavage (force feeding)

Introduction of nutritive material into the stomach by means of a tube.

Gene sequencing

The process of isolating a single gene from a person's DNA, then decoding the sequence of nucleotides. The process is relatively expensive ($1,000 or more). Sometimes the entire gene is decoded and sometimes only the extrons (the most important parts) are decoded. Different people can have slightly different sequences (variants) with little or no impact on how well the gene works. However, some errors in a gene's sequence can have serious consequences.

Generalized anxiety disorder

A condition characterized by 6 months or more of chronic, exaggerated worry and tension that is unfounded or much more severe than the normal anxiety most people experience.


A common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eyes rises because of slowed fluid drainage from the eye. If untreated, it may damage the optic nerve and other parts of the eye, causing the loss of vision or even blindness.

Graves disease

Generalized diffuse overactivity ('toxicity') of the entire thyroid gland which becomes enlarged into a goiter. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.

Gross motor

Refers to movements that involve large muscle groups. These may include walking, kicking, jumping, and climbing stairs.