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Apnea (obstructive, not neurologic)

Temporary interruption of breathing due to obstruction of the upper airway, often associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation.

Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA)

Evidence-based method for teaching children with disabilities. It is the only treatment for Autistic Spectrum disorders approved by the American FDA (Food and Drug Administration.)

Apraxia of speech (verbal apraxia)

A speech disorder in which a person has trouble saying what he or she wants to say correctly and consistently.

Arachnoid Cyst

fluid-filled cyst in the brain


Abnormal rhythm of the heart, which could be an abnormality of rate, regularity, presence of extra beats or missing beats

Articulation disorder

An inability to correctly produce speech sounds usually characterized by substitutions, omissions, additions, or distortions that may interfere with intelligibility.

Articulation therapy

Therapy that focus on the motor aspects of speech production.


An accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, resulting in a swollen, uncomfortable condition


A respiratory disorder, often of allergic origin, characterized bydifficulty in breathing, wheezing, and a sense of constriction inthe chest.


A condition in which the curvature of the cornea of the eye is uneven, causing a blurring of vision. Astigmatism is normally corrected by glasses.

Atonic seizures

are a minor type of seizure. They consist of abrief lapse in muscle tone that is caused by a temporary alterations in brain function. The seizures are brief - usually less than fifteen seconds. They begin in childhood and may persist into adulthood.The seizure itself causes no damage, but the loss of muscle controlcan result in injury.

Atopic dermatitis (eczema)

A chronic skin condition especially of children marked especially by intense itching.

Atypical absence seizures

is a common chronic neurological disorder that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal, excessive neuronal activity in the brain.

Auditory processing disorder

is a disorder in the way auditory information is processed in the brain. It is not a hearing impairment; individuals with APD usually have normal hearing ability.

Augmentative communication device

Any device that facilitates communication by those with limited or absent speech Examples Communication boards; pictographs–symbols that look like the things they represent; ideographs–symbols representing ideas.

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